with the patronage of
(1) © Musée de Nouvelle-Calédonie, Noumea, New Caledonia/Eric Dell'Erba
(2) © musée du quai Branly, photograph Patrick Gries
(3) Agency for the Development of Kanak Culture-Tjibaou Cultural Centre, Noumea, New Caledonia/® Eric Dell'Erba
(4) © musée du quai Branly, photograph Claude Germain
(5) © Musée de Nouvelle-Calédonie, Noumea, New Caledonia/® Eric Dell'Erba
Kanak, Art is a word
from 15 october 2013 to 26 january 2014
- Jardin Gallery
- Temporary exhibitions and twin tickets
- Emmanuel Kasarhérou, Head of the Overseas Section at the musée du quai Branly, Chief Heritage Curator and former Director of the ADCK and the Tjibaou Cultural Centre in New Caledonia
- Roger Boulay, ethnologist and specialist in Kanak heritage
around the exhibition
About the exhibition
This exhibition is the largest ever held on Kanak culture, bringing together more than 300 exceptional works and documents from public collections in Europe (Austria, Switzerland, France, Germany and Italy) and New Caledonia.
The exhibition will feature many previously unseen and spectacular pieces, great traditional works from the world of Kanak art: wooden carvings from the Grand Huts, jade ceremonial axes, pole sculptures and a diverse selection of statuettes and ornaments.
The exhibition is organised on the basis of two major principles:
the kanak talk of themselves
it is the kanak themselves who provide the visitor the path to comprehending their world and their vision. they speak of the essential elements of their culture in the first person, integrating them into history and distinguishing between timeless and factual. the exhibition is thus structured into cultural categories derived from the kanak world.
an exchange of kanak and european views
The exhibition attempts to reconcile two points of view: that of the Kanak looking at these visitors from another world and that of the European sailor, colonist or missionary on Kanak lives and words. The exhibition is thus the opportunity, on the basis of the objects and documents presented, for a dialogue between the rich immaterial heritage of the Kanak world and the works that largely originate in western museums which are today the guardians of a considerable percentage of Kanak material heritage.
The exhibition has a circular layout in which the introduction is also the conclusion. This circular plan is organised according to a principal theme entitled "the five faces", characterised by the powerful and evident presence of the Kanak word, and a secondary theme entitled "the reflections", making legible the development of the western view of the Kanak world by the accumulation of documentary evidence.
Némèè: the "faces"
In Kanak tradition, presenting oneself equates to showing one's face: this is a traditional protocol for entrance into the traditional spaces for both individuals and for the representatives of a group. These five "faces" are named in the Ajië language, one of the 28 Kanak languages which are still spoken.
Nô : the Verb and the Word
The importance of the Word is illustrated in the figure of the chief (also called “the great elder”). It is expressed in what is called the "custom". Shell coins still have their place today. In earlier times, prestigious objects were exchanged, such as jade axes, objects decorated with cords of flying fox hair and a variety of ornaments. These objects form the medium for this Word. The historical figure of Great Chief Mindia (1856-1921) is examined in this section.
Mwâ ma mwâcirî: the house and the landscape
The traditional Kanak country is organised around three visible realities in the landscape: the places of origin, the Grand Huts installed at the top of a landscaped alley, the altars to spirits and the remains of original houses. Contemporary memory preserves these ancient paths, which were destroyed by colonial development, population displacements and the enclosure of the Kanak into reserves. The historical figure of Great Chief Nidoish Naissiline (18??- 1880) is examined in this section.
Mwâ ma mëu : the taro and the yam
The immutable cycle of the cultivation of the yam, an essential foodstuff, is one of the most important symbols of Kanak life. They enable the understanding of the unswerving attachment of the Kanak to their land and consequently a better comprehension of the drama represented by the despoilment of this land which ended in the great Kanak revolt of 1878. In this section, the figure of Atai (1833-1878), leader of the Insurrection of 1878, is examined.
Bèmu ma rhee : the ancestors and the spirits
The religious and the sacred are expressed and concentrated in the ancestral figure. in traditional society they were made visible through sculpture and masks, while the objects that contained power, such as magic stones, were manipulated in secret. the important role of the dream in kanak society indicates a means of contacting the spirits that remains alive today. the historical figure of the great chief Aman de Touho illustrates this section.
Kamö ma vibéé : the individual and their connections
The individual is of major importance in the Kanak world. But the importance of the individual's social connections is never forgotten. These connections are recalled during each major life event by means of the circulation of coins that represent them. Contemporary society still lives on the basis of these connections, the depth of which is recalled during weddings and great periods of mourning.
The life's ambition of Jean Marie Tjibaou (1936-1989) was to attempt to construct a country whose contemporary life was based on these immutable foundations of Kanak society. The end of the exhibition examines his work.
Komè: the "reflections"
The secondary theme is constituted of four "reflections", presented as satellites of the "faces":
- Invention: the Enlightenment
- Inventory: scientific description
- Colonisation: the invention of an imagery of propaganda
- The reappropriation of our image: from Canaque to Kanak.
The concept of the "reflection" is the tool for a historical examination of all works presented. They will always be dated with evidence, either relating to the past or marking, in relationship with this past, the contemporaneity of functions and meanings.
Objects will be presented here that are linked to the great explorations of the 18th and 19th centuries, a documentary evocation of colonial and universal exhibitions at which were exhibited several Kanak groups, numerous documents illustrating popular images and common venues, photographic images and documents examining the development of the scientific and missionary view of the Kanak world.