Gradhiva n°4

fall 2006: The traffic of cultures

The fourth issue of Gradhiva confirms the journal's intention of providing common ground for anthropology, museology and history.
It opens with two studies in the field of ethnohistory. Jean Jamin and Yannick Seité offer an ethnography of a jazz melody, highlighting the role played by such 'songs' in popular culture, in literature and also in forming identity and relationships with otherness, whether black or white, American or European, Jewish or otherwise. Bernard Formoso's text takes another look at the way in which the Western image of Indochina came into being among 20th century orientalists, showing how the influences of other regional cultures - Indian, Chinese, or other - were interpreted. The study throws new light on the history of ethnographic and archaeological sciences in the Far East and on major figures in the field.
The two articles that follow present ethnographic analyses of museal institutions. Julio Vezub bases his study on the experience of the Leleque Museum in Argentinian Patagonia and describes the difficulties encountered in coordinating the interests of museologists, the Benetton group - the institution's patron - and the Mapuche and Tehuelche peoples concerned by the museum. Mathieu Claveyrolas takes an ethnographic look at the museum located within the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona. This museum, which is devoted in equal parts to the basilica itself, to its unfinished construction site and to its creator Gaudi, is used as a starting-point to explore the ways in which a religious and cultural heritage comes into being.
Finally, three texts go together to create a file on a performance given by Wauja Indians for the 'Radio France et Montpellier' Festival in the summer of 2005. The performance presented Wauja rituals, its highpoint being the dance of the great Atujuwa masks, and also gave the Western public an opportunity to hear the flute music and songs typical of the High Xingu. A year later, four French, American and Brazilian ethnologists specialising in the region look back on this unique experience, evoking the ways in which tradition adapts to museal demand.

Table of contents


- Jean JAMIN & Yannick SEITE

Anthropology of a musical hit from the Roaring Twenties, from jazz to litterature

- Bernard FORMOSO

Indochina as seen from the West

- Julio VEZUB

The Leleque museum and the Benetton Group in Argentinian Patagonia


The museum of a holy place under construction. The Sagrada Família between archives and virtual completion


“The traffic of cultures”, a Wauja Indian performance in Montpellier, France Aristoteles BARCELOS NETO, Marcelo FIORINI and Christopher BALL, Franck BEUVIER.



- Jean Jamin & Yannick Seité, Anthropology of a musical hit from the Roaring Twenties, from jazz to litterature

As the philosopher Alain so rightly asserted, music and song manifest "the epic nature of things". The article will explore the application of this notion to jazz music which, despite its apparently contingent nature, expresses not only a modulation, but the moulding of our relationships between self and self and between self and the other. This is clearly an anthropological subject, which is approached through a study of three works by 20th century writers (Pierre Mac Orlan, Jean-Paul Sartre and Alessandro Barrico) where “jazz singing”, which all three focus upon, expresses a dialectic of identity and otherness, playing on associations and contrasts of colors, both musical and fleshly. This is wonderfully exemplified by the famous Black, Brown And Beige suite created by Duke Ellington in 1943 and by Darius Milhaud who, twenty years earlier, combined jazz, blues and scholarly European musical traditions in his music for the ballet "The Creation of the World", the stage of which was designed by Fernand Léger using black white and ochre colors. Here, with these three works, our colours are black, white and blond.

- Bernard Formoso, Indochina as seen from the West

The essay takes a critical look at theses produced by the best-known European orientalists and their Asian emulators between 1910 and 1960 regarding Southeast Asia and the position it appeared to occupy midway between Indian and Chinese civilisations. The regional interface was neatly summed up by the term "Indochina", applied to its continental region. Whether French (S. Levy, G. Coedes and P. Mus), Dutch (J.C. Van Leur), British (H.G. Quaritch Wales) or Indian (B.R. Chaterjee, N. Sastri and R.C. Majumdar), their points of view - deeply influenced by the ideological and institutional hold that India specialists had over the orientalism of the period - oscillated between a diffusionist approach, which saw Southeast Asian autochthonic cultures as a simple hotchpotch of ideas from elsewhere, and a rather more respectful approach that recognised the dynamism of local societies, but which nonetheless saw them as playing a minor role in their own cultural fabric.

- Julio Vezub, The Leleque museum and the Benetton Group in Argentine Patagonia

The Benetton Group financed the establishment of a museum of regional history, which opened its doors in May 2000, located on a large estancia owned by the group in Northeastern Argentinian Patagonia. Based on the experience of a member of the team of anthropologist and historians, who planned the exhibitions housed in the Leleque museum, the use and interpretation of late 19th century photographs of natives excluded from territorial control are analysed. The article takes a closer look at the memory and land ownership conflicts that subsequently arose between the Benetton Group and Mapuche families and considers the ethical aspects regarding the contribution of professionals from the social sciences milieu to the writing of historical accounts within the context of private patronage.

- Mathieu Claveyrolas, The museum of a holy place under construction. The Sagrada Família between archives and virtual completion

The Catholic Sagrada Família church in Barcelona is a monumental holy place whose construction began in the late 19th century under the Catalan architect, Antoni Gaudí, and is still underway. The site includes a museum illustrating a condensed history of the site. It does not, however, simply content to educate us with exhibits recounting the various stages and techniques of construction – on the contrary, it contributes fully to the heritage creation of this holy place in the making, and to the ongoing beatification of its main architect. Nor is it content to offer us a simple recapitulation of the mandatory visit to the site by tourists and the faithful, but provides illustrations of the site’s various temporalities, using some often very original museographic procedures and gives its visitors an idea of what the finished work will be like.